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2. Primary causes of decreased activity of venous system

Veins - attenuated wall of surface veins
Two primary causes of attenuated surface of veins are known:
1) abiotrophy of venous wall
2) excessive pressure on the wall of surface veins, in case of impermeability of deep venous system (for more information about the 2. cause, see the Chapter: “ 2.2. Veins - impermeability of deep venous system”)

Perforation of capillaries and small surface veins
symptoms: small veins under the skin surface with broom-shaped processes

Sacculated dilatation of surface veins in case of attenuated wall of veins
symptoms: varicose veins of lower extremities

Rectification of alimentation and motorial activities in case of weakened venous wall


Veins - impermeability of deep venous system
The formation of blood coagulates in veins is a result of three primary causes:
1. ) hypercoagulation
2.) as a consequence of inflammatory processes in the wall of veins
3.) in case of blood stasis in lower extremities (lack of movement)
The thrombus (on the vein surface) is gradually enlarged, which results in the decrease of lumen of veins and the slow down of blood flow. Later, it can results into the total blockage of blood flow through the deep venous system. There are inosculations of veins between deep and surface venous systems. Those inosculations of veins contain venous valves, which under normal conditions, allow blood flow to stream only from surface venous system to the deep venous system, not backward. In case of impermeability of deep venous system, those valves fail to provide their function and the blood starts to circulate from deep to surface venous system. Through the surface venous system stream (under normal conditions) only 10% of blood, the rest (90% of blood) circulate through the deep venous system. In case of impermeability of deep venous system a higher content of blood in surface veins cause dilation of venous wall and the excessive pressure on venous wall cause attenuation of venous wall.

Veins - inflammatory processes in the wall of veins
symptoms: pain in lower extremity, the flush of lower extremity, oedema of lower extremity

The formation of blood aggregates in veins
symptoms: Dilated surface veins on lower extremities

Veins - the constriction of lumen of vein (with blood aggregates) and the restriction in flow
symptoms: sensibility of lower extremity, pain in lower extremity, oedema of lower extremity

Veins - blood accumulation in lower extremities
symptoms: oedemas of lower extremities, hyperpygmentation, scurfy skin on lower extremities, the loss of hair on lower extremities, the formation of abscess on the skin of crus (mainly in a part of malleolus)

Sacculated dilatation of surface veins as a consequence of impermeability of deep veins
symptoms: varicose veins on lower extremities

Rectification of alimentation and of motorial activities in case of impermeability of deep venous system



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